Medical treatment of vertigo – Know the effective and proven methods to relieve vertigo and recover balance.

Medical treatment of vertigo: Know the effective and proven methods to relieve dizziness and recover balance.

The vertigo, a type of dizziness characterized by a feeling of rotation, can significantly affect the quality of life of a person. Fortunately, there are several medical treatment options to control and relieve annoying symptoms associated with vertigo. These treatments are intended to restore balance and reduce dizziness, allowing people to recover their normal daily activities.

One of the main treatments for vertigo is vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT). It is a specialized form of physiotherapy that focuses on exercises and techniques to improve balance and reduce vertigo. The therapy usually consists of a series of carefully designed exercises, which may vary depending on the specific cause of vertigo. A physiotherapist trained guides patients through these exercises, helping them strengthen muscles related to balance and coordination. The physiotherapist can incorporate activities such as head movements, eye exercises and postural adjustments to r e-educate the brain response to certain movements and stimuli.

In addition to the VRT, medicines can also play a crucial role in the treatment of vertigo symptoms. Several types of medications can be prescribed depending on the underlying cause of vertigo. For example, if vertigo is due to an internal ear infection, antibiotics or antivirals can be prescribed to combat infection. Antiemetics drugs, such as mecling or processing, are usually prescribed to relieve nausea and vomiting associated with vertigo.

Understanding Vertigo: Causes and Symptoms


  • Vestibular neuritis: This condition occurs when the vestibular nerve is inflamed, responsible for transmitting the signals between the inner ear and the brain.
  • Meniere disease: Meniere’s disease is an internal ear disorder that causes episodes of vertigo, hearing loss, buzzing in the ears (tinnitus) and a feeling of fullness or pressure in the affected ear.
  • VPPB (Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo): VPPB is caused by calcium crystals that have detached themselves from their usual position within the ear and have penetrated the semicircular channels, altering the normal fluid flow and causing vertigo.
  • Migraine: Certain types of migraines, known as vestibular migraines, can cause episodes of vertigo in addition to strong headaches.

“Vertigo is a common symptom of several underlying medical conditions that affect the balance and balance of an individual.”


  1. Dizziness: Individuals with vertigo often experience a feeling of rotation or a feeling of being out of balance.
  2. Nausea and vomiting: the feeling of turning and dizziness can trigger nausea and, in some cases, vomiting.
  3. Instability: Vertigo can cause difficulties in maintaining adequate balance, which causes a feeling of instability or the need to grab something to support.
  4. Abnormal eye movements: During vertigo episodes, rapid and involuntary eye movements can occur, known as nystagmus.
  5. Hearing loss: In some cases, vertigo can be accompanied by a temporary or permanent hearing loss.

Common causes of vertigo:
Cause Description
Vestibular neuritis Vestibular nerve inflammation.
Meniere disease Internal ear disorder that causes vertigo, loss of hearing, tinnitus and pressure in the ear.
VPPB (Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo) Interruption of liquid flow in the semicircular channels due to the detachment of calcium crystals.
Migraine Vestibular migraines that cause episodes of vertigo and strong headaches.

Diagnosing vertigo: tests and examinations

Vestibular function tests: various tests can be performed to evaluate the patient’s vestibular system, which plays a vital role in maintaining balance and spatial orientation. These tests help identify any anomaly or dysfunction that may be contributing to vertigo. A commonly used test is the caloric test, in which the ears of the patient with hot or cold water irrigate to evaluate the vestibular response. Another test is electriciagmography (ENG), which measures eye movements in response to specific stimuli to evaluate the function of the vestibular system.

Important: An adequate evaluation of the vestibular system through various tests can determine the cause of vertigo and guide the health professional in the elaboration of an appropriate treatment plan.

Neurological examination: A complete neurological examination is essential to evaluate the general neurological function of the patient and discard any central nervous system disorder that may be causing vertigo. This exam usually includes an evaluation of cranial nerves, cerebellar function, progress evaluation and reflex tests. In addition, the exam may include brain image studies, such as a computerized tomography (TC) or magnetic resonance (RM), to identify any structural abnormality or tumors that could be involved in vertigo symptoms.

Medication Options for Vertigo Treatment

1. Antihistamines: Antihistamines are usually used to treat vertigo caused by internal ear problems, such as Meniere’s disease. These medications act blocking the release of histamine, a compound involved in the inflammatory response of the organism. This can help reduce the severity and frequency of vertigo episodes. Some common antihistamines used for vertigo treatment include:

  • MECLIZINA (Bonine, Antivert)
  • Dimenhydrine (dramamine)
  • Cinnarizina (Stugeron)

2. Benzodiazepines: Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs that have soothing and sedative effects on the body. They can be prescribed to treat vertigo associated with anxiety or as a shor t-term solution for serious vertigo symptoms. Among the most used benzodiazepines are:

  1. Diazepam (valium)
  2. Lorazepam (Ativan)
  3. Clonazepam (klonopin)

3. Antiemetic: antiemetics are medications mainly used to treat nausea and vomiting, but they can also relieve vertigo symptoms. These drugs act by blocking certain brain receptors that trigger the vomiting reflection. Some commonly prescribed antiemetics for vertigo are:

Drug name Tradename
Procllorazine Company
Prometazine Fenergan
Metoclopramid Regulate

Note: Medication options for vertigo treatment may vary depending on individual circumstances. Always consult a healthcare professional to obtain an accurate diagnosis and an appropriate treatment plan.

Physical therapy for managing vertigo

Physiotherapy for vertigo implies specific exercises and techniques aimed at improving balance, reducing dizziness and improving general vestibular function. These exercises are designed to stimulate the vestibular system, responsible for providing the brain with information on movement, spatial orientation and head position. When addressing the underlying causes of vertigo through physiotherapy, patients may experience a reduction in symptoms and improve their ability to carry out daily tasks.

Important information:

  1. Physiotherapy aims to improve balance and reduce dizziness in patients with vertigo.
  2. The exercises are designed to stimulate the vestibular system, which plays a crucial role in maintaining balance.
  3. Regular physical therapy sessions can lead to a decrease in vertigo symptoms and an improvement in overall function.
Benefits of physiotherapy to control vertigo:
1. 1. Improved balance and stability
2. Reduction in the frequency and severity of vertigo episodes
3. Increased ability to perform daily activities
4. Improved coordination and proprioception
5. Reduced dependence on medication to treat symptoms

Physical therapy is often recommended as a non-invasive, conservative approach to treating vertigo. By addressing the underlying causes and targeting specific symptoms, physical therapy can significantly improve the overall well-being and functional ability of people affected by vertigo.

Surgical Interventions for Severe Vertigo Cases

A surgical option for cases of severe vertigo is labyrinthectomy. This procedure involves the complete removal of the inner ear structures responsible for balance and hearing. Labyrinthectomy is often recommended for patients with unilateral Meniere’s disease, a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus. During the procedure, a small incision is made behind the ear and the surgeon removes the labyrinth. This eliminates the source of vertigo, but also causes permanent hearing loss in the affected ear.

Labyrinthectomy: Surgical procedure that consists of the complete removal of the inner ear structures responsible for balance and hearing. It is usually recommended for patients with severe unilateral Meniere’s disease.

An alternative surgical intervention for severe vertigo is section of the vestibular nerve. This procedure involves selectively cutting the vestibular nerve, which transmits sensory information related to balance and spatial orientation from the inner ear to the brain. By disconnecting the vestibular nerve, the problematic signals that cause vertigo can be eliminated. Section of the vestibular nerve is usually considered in patients with intractable vertigo or when the patient’s unaffected ear no longer has functional hearing. The procedure can be performed using various techniques, such as microvascular decompression and transtympanic neurectomy.

  1. Section of the vestibular nerve: Surgical procedure that consists of selectively cutting the vestibular nerve to eliminate the signals that cause vertigo.
  2. Microvascular decompression: Technique used for transection of the vestibular nerve in which the nerve is compressed by surrounding blood vessels to reduce its function.
  3. Transtympanic neurectomy: Technique used for transection of the vestibular nerve in which the nerve is cut through the eardrum.

Lifestyle Changes to Alleviate Symptoms of Vertigo

Vertigo, a condition characterized by the sensation of spinning, can greatly affect a person’s quality of life. In addition to medical treatments, certain lifestyle changes can help relieve vertigo symptoms and improve overall well-being. By making simple adjustments to daily routines, people can reduce the frequency and severity of vertigo episodes, allowing them to lead a more stable and balanced life.

1. Adopt a balanced diet

  • Eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins can contribute to overall health and reduce factors that can trigger vertigo symptoms. It is also recommended to avoid excessive consumption of caffeine and alcohol.

2. Stay hydrated

Drinking an adequate amount of water each day helps maintain adequate hydration, which can be beneficial for people with vertigo. Dehydration can exacerbate symptoms and make episodes more frequent, so it is essential to drink enough fluids throughout the day.

3. Control stress levels

Stress is one of the factors that contribute to episodes of vertigo, so it is crucial to find effective ways to manage stress levels. Engaging in activities such as yoga, meditation, or deep breathing exercises can be beneficial in reducing stress and promoting a sense of calm and stability.

“Adopting a balanced diet, staying hydrated and managing stress levels are key lifestyle changes that can help alleviate vertigo symptoms and improve overall well-being.”

Alternative and Complementary Treatments for Vertigo

1. Acupuncture: An alternative treatment for vertigo is acupuncture. This ancient Chinese practice involves inserting fine needles into specific points on the body. Acupuncture is believed to improve the flow of energy, or “qi,” and restore balance within the body. Some studies have suggested that acupuncture may help reduce the intensity and frequency of vertigo episodes, although more research is needed to understand its effectiveness.

2. Herbal supplements: herbal supplements have been used for centuries as complementary treatments for various health conditions, including vertigo. It is believed, for example, that Gingko Biloba improves blood circulation and reduces dizziness. However, it is essential to consult with a health professional before taking any plan t-based supplement, since they can interact with medications or have adverse effects.

It is important to note that alternative and complementary treatments for vertigo should not replace the medical council or prescribed medications. These treatments must be used together with conventional medical treatments and under the orientation of a healthcare professional.

The Use of Yoga for Vertigo Relief

3. Yoga: Yoga practice implies physical postures, breathing and meditation exercises. Some yoga postures, such as “crescent” or “tree”, can help improve balance and reduce dizziness. In addition, relaxation techniques used in yoga can help people control stress and anxiety, which can contribute to vertigo symptoms.

  • Improvement of balance and coordination
  • Strengthening of muscles
  • Reduction of stress and anxiety levels
  • Promotion of general wel l-being
  1. Start with soft yoga postures
  2. Focus on appropriate breathing techniques
  3. Avoid rapid and abrupt movements
  4. Listen to your body and modify the postures if necessary

Author of the article
Dr.Greenblatt M.
Dr.Greenblatt M.
Medical oncologist at the Robert Larner College of Medicine, MD, at the University of Vermont

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