Do you feel pain in the lower back? Read this article to know the most common causes and the most effective treatments for low back pain.

Do you feel pain in your lower back? Read this article to learn the most common causes and most effective treatments for low back pain.

Experimenting pain or discomfort in the lower back can significantly affect the daily activities and quality of life of a person. This type of discomfort, commonly called “low back pain”, may be due to various causes, such as injuries, muscle dishes or underlying medical conditions. Understanding the factors that contribute to low back pain and seeking proper treatment can help relieve symptoms and prevent subsequent complications.

Lumbar pain causes:

  1. Physical lesions or trauma: accidents, falls or incorrect lifting of heavy objects can cause muscle strains or damage to the lumbar area tissues.
  2. Muscle imbalances: the imbalances in the strength and flexibility of the muscles that support the spine can exert excessive pressure in certain areas, which causes pain and discomfort.
  3. Spine affections: conditions such as discs discs, degenerative disc disease or spinal stenosis can compress nerves in the lower back and cause pain and limitation of mobility.

Lumbar pain treatment options:

  • Rest and modification of the activity: taking a break from strenuous activities and adopting adequate posture and body mechanic can help relieve tension in the lumbar area.
  • Physiotherapy: Performing specific exercises and stretching under the supervision of a qualified physiotherapist can improve muscle strength, flexibility and general stability of the spine.
  • Medications: No n-steroidal ant i-inflammatory (NSAIDs), muscle or analgesics can be prescribed to control the pain and inflammation of the lower back.

IMPORTANT: If low back pain persists or worsens despite conservative measures, or if it is accompanied by symptoms such as numbness, tingling or weakness in the legs, it is crucial to seek medical attention quickly.

Hurt Lower Back: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment


  1. Inadequate lifting techniques: One of the most common causes of lumbar lesions is to lift heavy objects using incorrect body mechanic. This overloads the back muscles and can cause injuries.
  2. Sudden movements or trauma: A sudden movement or traumatic event, such as a fall or car accident, can cause injuries to the lower back. The force exerted on the spine during these events can cause sprains, strains, or even fractures.
  3. Poor posture: Sitting or standing for long periods with poor posture can overload the lower back and cause pain and discomfort. Maintaining proper spinal alignment is crucial to preventing injuries.

Note: It is important to seek medical attention if low back pain is the result of a specific event or if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, tingling or weakness in the legs, fever or loss of sphincter control.


  • Localized pain: People with low back pain may experience pain in the lower back region. The pain can range from mild to severe and can be constant or intermittent.
  • Difficulty in movement: Back injuries can make it difficult to perform everyday activities such as bending, lifting, or even standing for long periods of time. Limited range of motion is a common symptom.
  • Nerve-related symptoms: In some cases, an injured lower back can cause radiating pain, numbness, or tingling that can spread to the buttocks, legs, or feet. This may indicate compression or irritation of the nerves in the lower back.


Treatment for low back pain depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the injury. It may consist of a combination of the following

  1. Rest and limited activity: In mild cases, rest and limited activity are often recommended to allow injured muscles or tissues to heal. It is important to avoid activities that aggravate the pain.
  2. Pain treatment: Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can help relieve pain and reduce inflammation. In case of more severe pain, it may be necessary to prescribe medication.
  3. Physical therapy: A structured physical therapy program can help strengthen the muscles in the lower back and improve flexibility. It may include exercises, stretches, and other modalities intended to restore function and reduce pain.
Causes Symptoms Treatment
Improper lifting techniques Localized pain Rest and limited activity
Sudden movements or trauma Difficulty of movement Pain control
Bad posture Nerve-related symptoms Physiotherapy

Understanding the Anatomy of the Lower Back

The bottom of the back, also known as the lumbar region, plays a crucial role when it comes to supporting the weight of the upper body and facilitating movement. It is formed by several interconnected structures, such as bones, muscles, ligaments and nerves, which work together to provide stability and flexibility.

Bones: The lumbar zone is mainly composed of five vertebrae, commonly called L1 to L5. These vertebrae are stacked on each other and form the lower spine curve. Lumbar vertebrae are larger and stronger than other sections of the spine, since they support most of the body’s weight.


Several muscles are responsible for sustaining and moving the lumbar area. These muscles can be divided into three groups:

  1. Superficial muscles: These muscles are located near the surface of the skin and provide stability and movement to the lower back. The erect muscles of the spine, for example, extend along the spine and help maintain an upright posture.
  2. Deep muscles: deep muscles are located at greater depth in the lumbar zone and provide stability and support for the spine. The abdominal transverse, the multifid and the lumbar square are some of the deep muscles that help maintain a correct alignment of the spine.
  3. Flexor and extensor muscles: These muscles are responsible for the movement of the lumbar zone. Flexor muscles include the major and iliac psoas, which help hip flexion, while extensor muscles, such as the major buttock and hamstrings, help extend the hip joint.

“The lumbar area is a complex structure, with several interconnected components that work together to provide support, stability and movement.”

Structure Description
Bones It consists of five vertebrae (L1 to L5) that make up the lower curve of the spine.
Superficial muscles Located near the surface of the skin, these muscles provide stability and movement to the lumbar area.
Deep muscles Located in greater depth in the lower back, these muscles provide stability and support to the spine.
Flexor and extensor muscles Responsible for the movement of the lower back, the flexor muscles help flexed the hip, while the extensor muscles help extend the hip joint.

Common Causes of Lower Back Pain

1. 1. Bad posture: Being hunched or hunched over for long periods of time can overload the muscles and ligaments of the lumbar area, causing pain and discomfort. Maintaining a good posture while sitting, standing or lifting heavy objects is essential to avoid unnecessary tensions in the lumbar muscles.

Tip: Make a conscious effort to sit upright and use ergonomic furniture and equipment that provides adequate support to your lower back.

2. Muscle tension: Performing activities that involve repetitive or excessive use of the back muscles can cause muscle strains or sprains. This usually occurs during activities such as lifting heavy objects, awkwardly twisting or bending, or participating in intense physical sports.

  1. Avoid lifting heavy objects without proper form and technique.
  2. Take regular breaks and stretch during prolonged periods of sitting or standing.
  3. Exercise regularly to strengthen your back muscles and improve flexibility.

3. Herniated disc: A herniated disc, also known as a herniated disc or ruptured disc, can occur when the cushioned discs between the vertebrae of the spine bulge or rupture. This can cause irritation or compression of nearby nerves, causing lower back pain.

Causes Symptoms
Age-related wear Radiating pain, numbness, or tingling in the legs
Injuries or trauma to the back Weakened reflexes and muscle weakness

Avoiding heavy lifting and maintaining a healthy weight can help reduce the risk of a herniated disc. Seeking medical care for proper diagnosis and treatment is crucial for people experiencing symptoms associated with a herniated disc.

Symptoms of a Hurt Lower Back

If you have recently injured your lower back, you may experience a variety of symptoms that can range from mild discomfort to severe pain. These symptoms can greatly affect your daily activities and quality of life. By knowing the common signs of low back pain, you can better evaluate your condition and seek appropriate medical care.

Here are some key symptoms that may indicate a lower back injury:

  1. Localized pain: One of the most common symptoms of a lower back injury is the presence of localized pain. The pain may originate in the lower back and be sharp, stabbing, or dull. It may worsen with certain movements or activities.
  2. “Localized pain in the lower back may indicate a musculoskeletal strain or sprain.”

  3. Loss of flexibility: Another symptom you may experience is a noticeable reduction in your ability to move and bend your lower back. This decrease in flexibility can make it difficult to perform everyday tasks, such as bending or lifting objects.
  4. “Loss of flexibility in the lower back may suggest a muscle or ligament injury.”

  5. Radiating pain: In some cases, pain in the lower back can radiate to other areas of the body, such as the hips, buttocks, or legs. This type of pain is known as referred pain and may be accompanied by numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area.
  6. “Pain radiating from the lower back may be a sign of nerve compression or irritation.”

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is essential that you consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan. Early intervention can help prevent further damage and promote a faster recovery.

Diagnosing Lower Back Injuries: When to Seek Medical Help

1. Severe and persistent pain: If you experience severe and persistent pain in your lower back that lasts more than a few days, it is advisable that you consult a healthcare professional. Although occasional muscle aches and pains can be expected, severe, prolonged pain may indicate a more serious underlying condition.

It is essential to seek medical help if you experience severe, persistent lower back pain that lasts more than a few days, as it may indicate a more serious underlying condition.

2. Limited range of motion: If you find it increasingly difficult to perform simple movements, such as bending, twisting, or reaching, it may be a sign of a lower back injury that requires medical attention. Limited range of motion can be due to muscle strains, sprains, or even structural problems such as herniated discs.

  1. Difficulty performing basic movements, such as bending, twisting, or reaching, could indicate a lower back injury that requires medical attention.
  2. Factors such as muscle strains, sprains, or structural problems such as herniated discs can contribute to limiting range of motion in the lower back.

3. Radiating pain or numbness: If you experience pain or numbness that extends beyond your lower back and down your leg, it may be a sign of a pinched nerve or a condition called sciatica. This radiating pain can significantly affect your mobility and should prompt you to seek medical help to determine the cause and appropriate treatment options.

Sign Possible cause
Radiating pain or numbness in the leg Pinched nerve or sciatica

Remember that each person and each injury is unique, and these guidelines are not intended to replace professional medical advice. If you are unsure about your symptoms or if they worsen or persist, it is always recommended to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.

Non-Surgical Treatments for Lower Back Pain

1. Physiotherapy: One of the most effective non-surgical treatments for low back pain is physical therapy. This approach involves a series of exercises, stretches, and manual techniques tailored specifically to the patient’s condition. The goal of physical therapy is to strengthen the muscles that support the spine, improve flexibility, and correct postural imbalances. Additionally, it teaches patients proper body mechanics and heavy lifting techniques to prevent future injuries.

  1. Exercise: Regular exercise is an essential component of non-surgical low back pain treatment. Low-impact activities, such as swimming, walking, or cycling, can help improve circulation, increase endorphin levels, and promote healing. It is essential to start slowly and gradually increase the intensity and duration of the exercises. Consulting with a health professional or a physiotherapist can guide you on the appropriate exercises and their correct execution.
  2. Medication: Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can be used to relieve low back pain. These medications help reduce inflammation and relieve pain. However, long-term use of NSAIDs should be supervised by a healthcare professional. In some cases, muscle relaxants or prescription pain relievers may be necessary to control severe or chronic pain.
  3. Hot and cold therapy: Applying heat or cold to the affected area can temporarily relieve lower back pain. Cold therapy, using ice packs or cold compresses, helps reduce inflammation and numbs the area, while heat therapy, using heating pads or hot baths, increases blood flow and relaxes tense muscles. Alternating both can be beneficial for some people.

Note: It is important to consult a healthcare professional before starting any non-surgical treatment for low back pain. Each person’s condition is unique, and an accurate diagnosis is crucial to determining the most appropriate course of action.

Surgical Options for Severe Lower Back Injuries

1. Discectomy: This surgical procedure involves the removal of a damaged spinal disc that is causing nerve compression and pain. A small incision is made in the back and specialized instruments are used to remove the affected disc material. A discectomy can help relieve leg pain and numbness in cases of herniated or bulging discs.

2. Vertebral fusion: spinal fusion is a surgical technique that consists of joining two or more vertebrae to stabilize the spine. It is usually recommended to patients with conditions such as vertebral fractures, degenerative disease of the disk or spondylolistesis. During the procedure, bone or materials similar to bone between vertebrae are inserted, which favors the fusion of adjacent bones over time. This creates a solid and motionless segment of the spine, reducing pain and avoiding abnormal movements.

  1. Laminectomy: In cases where a compressed nerve is caused by spinal stenosis or an disc herniation, a laminectomy can be performed. This procedure is to remove a part of the vertebra called the sheet, which helps relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves. When widening the spinal channel and reducing compression, the laminectomy intends to relieve pain, numbness and weakness.

Comparison of surgical options for serious lumbar lesions
Procedure Indications Benefits Risks
Disccetomy Hernad or bulky discs – Relieve pain and numbness of the legs – minimally invasive procedure – Infection – Nervous Damage – Recurring Discal Hernia
Spinal fusion Column fractures, album degenerative disease, spondylolistesis – Stabilizes the spine – reduces pain – avoids abnormal movements – Infection – No union or pseudoarthrosis – Limited mobility of the spine
Laminectomy Spinal stenosis, disco disc – Relieve the pressure on the spinal cord or nerves – relieve pain, numb and weakness – Infection – Nervous Damage – Verrtebral column instability

“Although surgical intervention should only be considered after exhausting conservative treatment options, it can provide significant relief to people with serious lumbar lesions. It is crucial that patients maintain an exhaustive conversation with their health professionals to determine the most appropriate surgical approachdepending on its specific state and your medical history. “

– Medical expert

Preventing Further Injury: Tips for Maintaining a Healthy Lower Back

1. Practicing a good posture: Maintaining a correct posture is crucial for the health of the lower back. When sitting or standing, make sure your column is aligned correctly. Avoid beating or leaning excessively forward, as this can force lumbar muscles. Sit right, with your shoulders back and feet resting on the ground. Use an ergonomic chair or a cushion can also provide additional support.

2. Exercise regularly: Physical activity is essential for lower back health. Practicing exercises that strengthen your core muscles can help support your lower back and prevent injury. Consider activities such as yoga, Pilates, or tai chi, which focus on flexibility, balance, and strengthening your abdominal and back muscles. Additionally, incorporating low-impact aerobic exercise, such as swimming or brisk walking, into your routine can improve your overall fitness and reduce your risk of back pain.

  • Avoid slouching or leaning forward excessively
  • Sit up straight, with your shoulders back and feet flat on the floor.
  • Use an ergonomic chair or cushion for additional support.
  1. Perform exercises that strengthen your core muscles
  2. Consider activities like yoga, pilates, or tai chi.
  3. Incorporate low-impact aerobic exercise, such as swimming or brisk walking, into your routine.

3. Lift objects safely: Improper lifting techniques can cause serious lower back injuries. When lifting heavy objects, remember to bend at the knees and not at the waist. Keep your back straight and use your leg strength to lift the load. Also, avoid twisting your torso when lifting and instead pivot your entire body. If an object is too heavy to lift alone, ask for help to avoid straining your lower back.

Proper lifting techniques:
1. Bend at the knees, not at the waist
2. Keep your back straight
3. Use leg strength to lift the load
4. Pivot your entire body instead of twisting your torso
5. Ask for help if the object is too heavy

By practicing good posture, exercising regularly, and lifting objects safely, people can take proactive steps to prevent further injuries and maintain a healthy lower back. It is important to listen to your body, avoid overexertion, and seek medical attention if back pain persists or worsens. Remember that taking care of your lower back today can significantly impact your overall well-being in the long term.

Author of the article
Dr.Greenblatt M.
Dr.Greenblatt M.
Medical oncologist at the Robert Larner College of Medicine, MD, at the University of Vermont

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