Discover what the bed bug is, its impact on health and effective measures to prevent infestations. Stay informed and sleep quietly.

Discover what the bed bugs, their impact on health and effective measures to prevent infestations are. Stay informed and sleep quietly.

The bed bug, scientifically known as Cimex Lectularius, is a small parasite insect that belongs to the Cimicidae family. These hematophagous insects are mainly nocturnal and are usually found in human homes such as homes, hotels and bedrooms. Although its name implies a preference for beds, bedbugs can inhabit in any protected crack or place, including furniture cracks, behind the wallpaper and inside the electric plugs. They are known for causing discomfort and anguish due to their bites, which often produce red cradles that bite in the skin.

The bedbugs have a flat and oval body and the approximate size of an apple seed. They are usually brown, but change reddish brown after ingesting blood. These insects have six legs and antennas and can quickly move through soils, walls and ceilings. Adult bedbugs measure approximately between 5 and 7 millimeters, while nymphs, which are younger and small versions of adults, can measure 1 millimeter.

Important information:

  • The bed bugs are insects without wings that cannot fly, but they are experts to rise.
  • They are known for their ability to hide in narrow cracks and clefts, which makes detection and elimination difficult.
  • Its main power supply is blood, which usually wave to humans, although they can also feed on mammals and birds.

Understanding the biology of bed bugs

The vital cycle of the bedbugs consists of several phases: egg, nymph and adult. The female bedbugs can put hundreds of eggs throughout their lives, normally in cracks and clefts near their favorite hiding places, such as mattresses, somieres and rolled. The eggs are white and measure approximately 1 mm long, so they are practically invisible to the naked eye.

Important information:

  1. Chinche eggs are extremely resistant and can survive in a wide range of environmental conditions.
  2. Eggs usually hatch within 6 to 10 days, depending on temperature and humidity.
  3. The nymphs that leave the eggs pass through several phases of mute, during which they move the exoskeleton and increase in size.

Once the nymphs reach adulthood, they are approximately the size of an apple seed and have a reddish brown color. Adult bedbugs can live several months without feeding, which hinders their eradication. They are predominantly nocturnal and are attracted to body heat and carbon dioxide emitted by their guests.

Understanding the biology of bedbugs is crucial for effective detection and treatment. By knowing their life cycle and habits, people can take appropriate measures to identify and control infestations and, ultimately, minimize the impact of these persistent parasites on human health and wel l-being.

The history of bed bugs and human interaction

It is believed that the bedbugs originated in the Cuevas de Murcielagos, where they fed on their blood. When humans began to settle in caves and build rudimentary shelters, bedbugs adapted to feeding on human blood, which caused infestations in the first human communities.

The first written documentation on the bed bugs dates back to ancient civilizations such as Greek and Roman. These described the presence of insects that caused irritating bites and infested the bedding. Historical records have shown that even the Great Roman Empire struggled to control the infestations of bed bugs in luxury villages and public spaces, which led to the development of primitive methods of bug control.

  1. The Romans used various techniques to combat bed bugs, such as sulfur burning and herbs with herbs and plan t-based insecticides.
  2. During the Middle Ages, the bedbugs extended throughout Europe, infesting not only households, but also the wooden frames and coatings of the beds.

The bedbugs were a especially serious problem during the rebirth, since the richest families had more furniture and possessions that provided ideal hiding places for insects. The use of heavy tissues, such as velvet and tapestries, also contributed to the persistence of bedroom infestations.

Bed pests continued in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, especially during the industrial revolution, when urbanization and overcrowding were generalized. The increase in international trips and trade also contributed to the generalized distribution of bed bug by the continents.

Chinches chinches of bed Events
400 B. C. First written bedroom record in ancient Greece
XVII century Colonial expansion takes bed bugs to America
Twentieth century Introduction of insecticides for bed bug control

Due to the resistance and adaptability of bed bugs, along with consumer resistance to chemical insecticides, infestations persisted despite various control efforts. It was not until the development of more effective insecticides and improved sanitation practices in the mid-20th century that bed bug populations declined significantly in many developed countries.

Identifying bed bugs: appearance and behavior


  • Adult bed bugs are usually reddish brown and have a flattened, oval body. They measure between 4 and 5 millimeters in length, similar to the size of an apple seed.
  • Young bed bugs, known as nymphs, are smaller and lighter in color, often appearing translucent or yellowish before feeding.
  • Both nymphs and adult bed bugs have six legs and the body is covered with short, golden hairs.
  • Bed bugs have a segmented body, with a prominent head and a beak-shaped structure called a proboscis, which they use to pierce the skin and feed on blood.


  • Bed bugs are nocturnal creatures that prefer to feed on blood at night, when their hosts are sleeping. They are attracted to body heat, carbon dioxide and other chemical signals emitted by humans and animals.
  • These pests are excellent at hiding and can get into small cracks and crevices, making them difficult to detect. They can be found on mattresses, box springs, furniture and even behind wallpaper.
  • When not actively feeding, they tend to hide near their hosts, such as in the seams of mattresses or the edges of furniture.
  • Bed bugs are known for their ability to survive without a blood meal for several months, allowing them to persist in dormant infestations until a suitable host becomes available.

By knowing what bed bugs look and behave, people can take proactive steps to identify and eliminate infestations. Regular inspections, thorough cleaning, and professional pest control services can help effectively control these tough pests and maintain a bed bug-free environment.

Life Cycle and Reproduction of Bed Bugs

Life cycle: The life cycle of bed bugs consists of five stages, namely egg, five nymphal instars and adult. These insects undergo a process known as incomplete metamorphosis, in which the nymphs resemble smaller versions of the adults. The entire life cycle, from egg to adult, usually lasts between 5 and 6 weeks, but can vary depending on environmental factors such as temperature and food availability.

Egg phase: Female bed bugs can lay between 1 and 5 eggs per day, and a total of between 200 and 500 eggs throughout their life. These oval-shaped eggs are approximately 1 mm in length and are often laid in cracks, crevices, or other hidden places near human hosts.

Nymphal instars: After hatching from the eggs, bed bugs go through five nymphal instars. During each phase, the nymphs need a blood meal to molt to the next phase. They are translucent and gradually darken as they feed on blood. Molting occurs between each stage, shedding its exoskeleton and increasing in size.

Adult phase: Once the fifth nymphal stage has been reached, the bedbug becomes an adult. Adult bed bugs are reddish brown, have a flat, oval body and measure approximately 4-5 mm in length. They feed on human blood, usually at night, and can survive for months without a blood meal under favorable conditions.

Understanding the life cycle of bed bugs is crucial for effective pest control. By attacking these insects in several phases, it is possible to interrupt their reproduction and eliminate infestations more effectively.

Common signs and symptoms of bed bug infestation

1. Bite marks: One of the most obvious signs of bed bug infestation is the presence of bite marks on the skin. Bed bug bites appear as small, itchy red bumps or welts that may be in a line or in a cluster. However, it is essential to note that these bites may not be noticeable immediately and may take several days to develop.

Tip: Bed bug bites are often confused with bites from other insects or skin conditions. If you suspect a bed bug infestation, it is crucial to consult a medical professional for a proper diagnosis.

2. Presence of bed bugs in the environment: Another clear sign of a bed bug infestation is the actual presence of bed bugs in the environment. These insects are small and oval in shape, usually brown or reddish brown in color. They can be found in various hiding places, such as mattress seams, headboards, furniture crevices, and electrical outlets.

  1. Inspect the seams and crevices of the mattress for live bed bugs or their eggs.
  2. Check the headboard and the area around the bed, including nearby furniture.
  3. Look for dark stains of stool or blood on the sheets or mattress.
  4. Use a flashlight to check cracks and crevices in walls, baseboards, and electrical outlets.

3. Unpleasant smell: Bed bedbug infestations often produce a characteristic moisture smell. This smell is caused by the odoriferous glands of the bedbugs and is more noticeable in serious infestations. If you notice an unusual smell, especially in areas where you suspect there are bedbugs, it is advisable to investigate more thoroughly.

Health risks associated with bed bugs

1. Allergic reactions: Some people can develop an allergic reaction to bed bug bites. These reactions can go from slight to serious and may include redness, swelling and intense itching in the place of the bite. Rarely, a severe allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis, which requires immediate medical attention can occur.

  • The symptoms of an allergic reaction to bed bug bites can include:
  • Red, swollen and inflamed skin
  • Lesions similar to ampoules or urticaria
  • Breathing difficulty or wheezing
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Dizziness or fainting

2. Secondary infections: scratching bed bug bites can break the skin, which increases the risk of secondary infections. The bacteria of the hands and nails can penetrate the broken skin, causing infections such as impetigo or cellulite. These infections can cause symptoms such as pain, redness and blisters full of pus.

Note: It is important to avoid scratching bed bug bites to prevent the risk of secondary infections. The use of free sales antiprurito creams and the antihistamine taking can help relieve itching and reduce the desire to scratch.

3. Psychological effects: Bag infestations can have psychological effects on people. The presence of these pests at home can cause anxiety, stress and sleep disorders. The constant fear of being bitten can cause insomnia and even contribute to the development of mental disorders such as anxiety or depression disorders.

Tips for preventing and controlling bedroom infestations:
Regularly inspect and clean the bedding, furniture and upholstery.
Use covers for mattresses and pillows to avoid the entrance of bed bugs.
Disordine your home to reduce the hiding places of the bedbugs.
If an infestation occurs, look for professional pest control services.
Wash and dry at high temperatures clothes, sheets and infested curtains.

Prevention and Control Measures for Bed Bugs

Prevention strategies:

  1. Inspect and clean: regularly inspect all areas where bed bugs can hide, including beds, upholstered furniture, cracks and clefts. Mattress, somieres and other fabrics aspire to remove eggs and bedbugs.
  2. Selle cracks and clefts: Use putty to seal any crack or cleft on walls, sockets and furniture to prevent the bedbugs from hiding and putting eggs.
  3. Use protective covers: Cover the mattresses, somieres and pillows with bedpays proof to prevent these articles from infesting.
  4. Clear and minimize the hiding places: reduce the disorder in the living areas and the bedrooms to minimize the possible hiding places of the bed bugs. Shark of unnecessary objects and periodically clean and clean storage spaces.
  5. Be careful when traveling: When staying in hotels or other accommodations, perform a thorough inspection of the room before undoing your bags. Check the bedding, the furniture and the players in search of any indication of bed bugs.

Remember that prevention is key when it comes to bed bugs. Taking proactive measures to minimize the risk of infestation can save time, money and lon g-term stress.

Control measures:

  • Hire a professional exterminator: if there is an infestation of bed bug, it is advisable to seek the help of a professional pest control company. They have the experience and the necessary tools to effectively eliminate infestation.
  • Use insecticides: insecticides can be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan. However, it is important to carefully follow the product instructions and use them in the areas where the bed bugs are known.
  • Thermal treatment: high temperatures can be lethal for bed bugs. Thermal treatment with specialized equipment can be an effective method to eliminate bed bugs or infested rooms.

Consulting with a professional expert in pest control is crucial to determine the most appropriate control measures based on the severity of infestation and specific circumstances.

Debunking common myths about bed bugs

Myth 1: Bed there are only in dirty environments.

  • Contrary to popular belief, bed bugs are not exclusive to dirty or impure spaces.
  • They can be found both in clean and messy environments, since their main source of survival is human blood.
  • Bags are excellent autoestopists and can be introduced anywhere through luggage, clothing or used furniture.

MYTH 2: Bowls are too small to see them with the naked eye.

  1. Although bed bugs are small size, they measure about 4-5 mm long, they are still visible to the naked eye.
  2. Adult bedbugs have a reddish brown color and a flat and oval body.
  3. Young bedbugs, known as nymphs, are smaller and lighter.

IMPORTANT: It is essential to accurately identify the bed bugs to effectively treat infestation. Consult a professional expert in pest control if you suspect you have a bedside problem.

Myth 3: Beds only bite at night.

  • Although bedbugs are predominantly nocturnal and tend to be more active at night, they can chop at any time of day if they are hung.
  • The bedbugs are attracted to the carbon dioxide emitted by human beings, which makes them opportunistic feeders whenever there is an adequate host available.
  • Bag bites often produce red cradles that bite in the skin.

By dissipating these common myths around bed bedbugs, we can better understand their behavior and effectively address infestations. It is important to rely on precise information and seek professional help when necessary to avoid unnecessary stress and anxiety associated with these pests.

Author of the article
Dr.Greenblatt M.
Dr.Greenblatt M.
Medical oncologist at the Robert Larner College of Medicine, MD, at the University of Vermont

Cannabis and Hemp Testing Laboratory
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