Common Runners’ Injuries – Learn about the most common injuries runners can suffer and how to prevent and treat them.

Common lesions of the runners - Know the most common lesions suffered by runners and how to prevent them and treat them.

Running is a popular form of exercise that offers numerous health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and increased mental well-being. However, along with the many advantages, runners are also prone to a number of common injuries that can hinder their training and performance. Knowing these injuries can help runners take preventive measures and seek appropriate treatment when necessary.

1. Shin Splints: One of the most common injuries among runners is shin splints, also known as medial tibial stress syndrome. This condition causes pain along the tibia and usually occurs when there is overuse or excessive force on the tibia and connective tissues. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be caused by a variety of factors, such as improper footwear, running on hard surfaces, or rapidly increasing training intensity.

  1. Symptoms: People with shin splints may experience tenderness, pain, or discomfort on the inside of the lower leg.
  2. Treatment: Initial treatment for shin splints consists of rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). It is important to avoid activities that exacerbate pain and gradually return to running when symptoms subside. In some cases, physical therapy exercises may be recommended to strengthen the muscles in the lower leg and improve biomechanics.
  3. Prevention: To prevent shin splints, it is essential that runners wear appropriate footwear with good cushioning, avoid sudden increases in training intensity, and incorporate strengthening exercises targeting the muscles of the lower leg into their routine..

2. IT band syndrome: Another common injury among runners is iliotibial (IT) band syndrome. It is a thick band of tissue that runs along the outside of the thigh, from the hip to the knee. When it becomes tight or inflamed, it can cause pain and discomfort on the outside of the knee.

  • Symptoms: People with IT band syndrome may experience sharp or burning pain on the outside of the knee, especially when running or descending stairs.
  • Treatment: Treatment for IT band syndrome usually involves a combination of rest, ice, stretching exercises, and physical therapy. In severe cases, corticosteroid injections or surgical interventions may be necessary.
  • Prevention: runners can prevent the IT band syndrome by incorporating regular stretching exercises aimed at the IT band, gradually increasing mileage and intensity, and paying attention to the correct way to run.

IMPORTANT: It is important that runners listen to their body and attend to any discomfort or pain. Ignoring these warning signs can aggravate injuries and prolong recovery periods.

Strains and sprains: Understanding the difference and how to prevent them

Understand distensions:

A distension refers to an injury to a muscle or tendon, which is the tissue that connects the muscles with the bones. These lesions usually occur when muscles or tendons stretch or tear beyond their capacity. Among the most frequent distension areas in the runners are quadriceps, hammets and twins. Dystensions are usually classified into three degrees, depending on the severity of the tear: grade I distensions imply a mild stretching and a microscopic tear, those of grade II imply a partial tear and those of grade III imply a complete tear of the muscle ortendon.

  • Dystensions are usually a consequence of excessive use, inappropriate warming or insufficient flexibility.
  • Symptoms may include pain, muscle weakness, swelling and limitation of movement amplitude.
  • The treatment of distensions usually consists of rest, ice, compression, elevation and rehabilitation exercises.

Understand the sprains:

Unlike distensions, which affect muscles and tendons, sprains affect ligaments, conjunctive tissues that stabilize the joints and keep the bones together. The sprains usually occur when the ligaments are stretched or tear due to twisting, torsions or abrupt landings. The runners often suffer an ankle sprains, knee or wrist, especially in irregular terrain or when they carry inappropriate footwear.

  • The sprains usually occur due to falls, sudden changes of direction or inappropriate fastening of footwear.
  • The most frequent symptoms are pain, swelling, bruises, instability and difficulty supporting the weight in the affected joint.
  • The treatment of sprains usually consists of rest, ice therapy, compression, elevation and immobilization of the joint.

The prevention of distensions and sprains should be a priority for runners who wish to maintain their performance and not suffer injuries. Incorporate an exhaustive heating routine before each race, guarantee an appropriate rest and recovery time, use appropriate footwear and gradually increase the intensity and duration of training sessions are some of the strategies that can significantly reduce the risk ofThese injuries.

Prevention tips for distensions: Prevention tips for sprains:
  • Include dynamic stretching exercises in your warm-up routine.
  • Gradually increase the intensity and mileage of your training to avoid overuse.
  • Use proper form and technique during running and strength training.
  • Make sure your training program includes adequate rest and recovery days.
  • Wear supportive shoes that fit correctly for your running style.
  • Strengthen the muscles surrounding the affected joints through specific exercises.
  • Avoid running on uneven surfaces or unstable terrain whenever possible.
  • Pay attention to proper landing techniques to minimize the risk of twisting.

Shin splints: Causes, symptoms, and treatment options

There are several factors that contribute to the appearance of shin pain. One of the main causes is the excessive or sudden increase in the intensity, duration or frequency of running. Performing activities on hard surfaces, such as concrete, can also put extra strain on your shins. Additionally, inappropriate footwear, such as worn or unsupportive sneakers, can contribute to shin pain. It is important to note that individual biomechanics, such as flat feet or high arches, can also increase the risk of developing this condition.

Symptoms of shin splints

  • Pain along the inner edge of the tibia
  • Tenderness and pain in the affected area
  • Swelling or inflammation
  • Discomfort that worsens during physical activity
  • Pain that persists even at rest

It is important to differentiate shin splints from other conditions that can cause similar symptoms, such as stress fractures or compartment syndrome. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional to obtain an accurate diagnosis.

Treatment options for shin splints

To treat shin splints, a combination of rest, activity modification, and self-care measures is often recommended. Resting and avoiding activities that exacerbate pain allows injured tissues to heal. Ice therapy can help reduce inflammation and relieve pain. Applying an ice pack to the affected area for about 15-20 minutes every few hours is beneficial. Additionally, using over-the-counter pain relievers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may provide temporary relief.

Performing adequate stretching and strengthening exercises muscles at the bottom of the leg can help prevent tibia stress syndrome. Gradually increasing the intensity and duration of career activities can also reduce the risk of developing this injury. It is essential to carry support shoes that fit well to the type of foot and the way of running. In severe cases, physiotherapy or orthopedic devices can be prescribed to help rehabilitation and correct biomechanical anomalies.

Runner’s knee: Recognizing the signs and finding effective relief

The runner knee, also known as patelofemoral pain syndrome, is a condition that causes pain around the kneecap. The runners usually suffer from it due to the repetitive tension exerted on the knee joint when running. Although the exact cause of the runner knee varies, there are several factors that can contribute to developing this condition. Among them include an incorrect way of running, weak or unbalanced leg muscles, overload and jumping or excessive descents.

Signs and symptoms:

  1. Gradual appearance of pain in the front of the knee, especially around or under the kneecap.
  2. The pain worsens when running, snouting or lowering stairs, and can improve with rest.
  3. Sensation of click on the knee during movement.
  4. Swelling and inflammation around the area of the kneecap.

If you suspect that you suffer runner knee, it is essential that you look for adequate medical advice to obtain an accurate diagnosis and an appropriate treatment plan. The first step to find an effective relief is to rest and avoid hig h-impact activities that exacerbate pain. Ice bags can be applied in the affected area to reduce inflammation, and no n-steroidal ant i-inflammatories (NSAIDs) free sales can help control pain and swelling.

Treatment and relief:

  • Physiotherapy exercises to strengthen the muscles that surround the knee, improve flexibility and correct any muscle imbalance.
  • Orthopedic templates to improve the support and alignment of the feet and knees.
  • Modification of the technique of running and use in the proper way to reduce the tension in the knee joint.

In addition to these conservative treatments, your doctor may also recommend using a knee brace or taping techniques to provide additional support and stability to your knees during activities. In some cases, corticosteroid injections or surgery may be necessary for severe or persistent cases of runner’s knee. However, they are often considered last resort options once non-surgical methods have been exhausted.

Preventive measures:
1. Wear appropriate footwear with appropriate cushioning and support.
2. Gradually increase the intensity and distance of the run to allow the body to adapt.
3. Regularly stretch and strengthen your leg muscles, especially those around the knee joint.
4. Use orthotics or shoe inserts, if necessary, to maintain proper foot and knee alignment.

Achilles Tendonitis: Tips for Avoiding this Common Runner’s Injury

A common cause of Achilles tendinitis is overuse or overuse of the tendon, often due to repetitive activities such as running or jumping. Additionally, factors such as tight calf muscles, improper footwear, and a sudden increase in training intensity can also contribute to the development of this injury. To avoid Achilles tendonitis, it is essential to follow these important guidelines:

  1. Gradually increase training intensity: One of the key steps in preventing Achilles tendonitis is to gradually increase the intensity and duration of training sessions. Rushing into high-intensity workouts without giving the body enough time to adapt can place excessive strain on the Achilles tendon, which can lead to inflammation and injury. It is recommended to follow a structured training program that gradually increases the workload over time.
  2. Stretch and strengthen your calf muscles: Tightness of your calf muscles can put additional strain on your Achilles tendon. Performing regular stretching exercises, such as calf stretches and heel drops, can help maintain the flexibility of your calf muscles and relieve tendon tension. Strengthening exercises, such as toe raises and calf raises, can also help improve overall lower leg strength and stability.
  3. Wear proper footwear: Choosing the right running shoes is crucial to preventing Achilles tendonitis. Make sure your shoes provide adequate support, cushioning and stability for your feet and lower legs. It is recommended to go to a specialized running store to be fitted with shoes that adapt to your foot type and running style.

“Proper care and preventative measures are crucial to avoiding Achilles tendonitis. Gradually increasing training intensity, stretching and strengthening the calf muscles, and wearing proper footwear can significantly reduce the risk of developing this common injury among runners.”

In addition to these measures, it is important to listen to your body and promptly attend to any signs of discomfort or pain. If you experience persistent Achilles tendon pain, it is recommended that you consult a health care professional who specializes in sports medicine. They can provide you with a thorough assessment, recommend appropriate treatment options, and help you develop a tailored plan to prevent future injuries.

Plantar Fasciitis: Causes, Treatment, and Precautions for Runners

Causes: Plantar fasciitis can be caused by a variety of factors, with overuse and repetitive stress being the main culprits. Runners who excessively or suddenly increase training intensity, frequency, or duration are at increased risk of developing this condition. Other factors may include biomechanical problems such as flat feet or high arches, improper footwear, tight calf muscles, and obesity. It is important to note that each person may have a unique combination of factors that contribute to the development of plantar fasciitis.

  • Prolonged standing
  • Running on hard surfaces
  • Wearing shoes with inadequate support
  • Inadequate biomechanics
  • Calf muscle tension

Treatment: Fortunately, there are multiple treatment options for plantar fasciitis. The main goals of treatment are to reduce pain and inflammation, promote healing and prevent future injuries. Initial treatment usually includes a combination of rest, ice, and over-the-counter pain relievers. Physical therapy exercises and stretches targeting the calf muscles and plantar fascia may also be helpful in relieving symptoms and improving flexibility. In severe cases, a healthcare professional may recommend medical interventions such as corticosteroid injections or extracorporeal shock wave therapy.

Precautions for runners: as it is always better to prevent cure, runners should take certain precautions to avoid the development of plantar fasciitis. It is essential to initiate any training or exercise program gradually, allowing the body to adapt to the greatest demands. To minimize the impact on the plantar fascia, it is essential to choose an adequate footwear with a good support for the arch and damping. Stretching and strengthening the calf muscles regularly, as well as incorporating lo w-impact activities in training routines, such as swimming or cycling, can help reduce the risk of lesions due to excessive use such as plantar fasciitis.

Important information:
Causes Treatment Precautions for runners
Repetitive overload and stress Rest, ice, medication Gradual training, adequate footwear, stretching
Biomechanical problems Physiotherapy exercises, medical interventions Strengthening of calf muscles, lo w-impact activities

Stress Fractures: Recognizing and Recovering from Common Running Injuries

Recognize an overload fracture: it is important to know how to recognize the signs and symptoms of an overload fracture to seek adequate medical care and avoid major injuries. The most common indications of an overload fracture include pain that worsens with activity, localized sensitivity, swelling and difficulty supporting weight in the affected area. It is essential to differentiate between an overload fracture and other injuries related to the career, such as pains in pimples or muscle distensions, since treatment plans may differ significantly.

Note: If you suspect you can have an overload fracture, it is essential that you consult a healthcare professional to obtain an accurate diagnosis and a personalized treatment plan.

Recovering from a stress fracture:

Recovering an overload fracture requires patience and a comprehensive approach to guarantee adequate healing and prevent future appearances. The treatment usually consists of a combination of rest, modification of the activity and specific interventions to favor bone healing. The following steps are essential for satisfactory recovery:

  1. Rest: The initial phase of recovery is to reduce or interrupt the activities that may aggravate the injury. This gives the bone time to cure and rebuild. The duration of the necessary rest varies depending on the severity and location of the overload fracture.
  2. Immobilization: In some cases, immobilization with a plaster or protective boot may be necessary to stabilize the affected bone and facilitate healing. This is especially true in the case of stress fractures in bones that support weight or in those with a risk of displacement.
  3. Gradual return to activity: once the fracture has been cured enough, a structured rehabilitation program can help recover strength, flexibility and resistance. It is essential to gradually increase the intensity and duration of the activity to avoid a new injury.

IT Band Syndrome: Prevention Techniques and Exercises for Runners

Prevention techniques:

  1. Adequate stretching: regular stretching of the IT band before and after running can help prevent the trenching and reduce the risk of injuries. Specific stretching, such as stretching of the IT band and stretching of the buttocks lying, can be effective in maintaining flexibility.
  2. Gradual increase in intensity and duration: gradually increase mileage and intensity allows the body to adapt and reduce the probability of overloading the IT band. It is important to listen to the body and avoid sudden increases in training volume.
  3. Use proper footwear: the use of adequate running shoes, which provides appropriate support and damping, can help distribute the impact of the race more uniform in the lower extremities, reducing the tension in the IT band.
  4. Take rest days: rest and recovery are essential to prevent injuries. Giving enough time to recover between races allows tissue repair and helps prevent excessive use injuries such as IT band syndrome.

Important: The incorporation of these techniques for the prevention of a corridor training routine can significantly reduce the risk of developing the IT band syndrome. It is important to consult a health professional or a certified coach to ensure that the form and technique are correct when performing the exercises.

Strengthening exercises:

  1. Side step with resistance band: place a resistance band just below the knees and perform side steps to strengthen the muscles surrounding the hips and thighs. This exercise helps improve hip stability and reduce the tension in the IT band.
  2. Clams: Fully side with your knees flexed and feet together. Keeping your feet in contact, lift your upper knee as high as possible without rotating your hip. This exercise works the medium buttock, which helps stabilize the pelvis during the race.
  3. Senters to one leg: Place yourself on one leg with the other extended forward. Desce slowly as far as it is comfortable, maintaining balance. This exercise strengthens the quadriceps and buttocks, improves the alignment of the knee and reduces the tension in the IT band.

Note: It is essential to start these exercises with light resistance or repetitions and gradually increase the intensity as it is tolerated, always maintaining the proper form.

Prevention techniques Strengthening exercises
– Adequate stretching – Side step with resistance band
– Gradual increase in intensity and duration – clams
– Use proper footwear – Sailing to one leg
– Take rest days

Blisters, Chafing, and Other Common Skin Problems in Runners: Remedies and Prevention Strategies

1. Ampoules: Ampoules are bags full of fluid that are formed in the surface layer of the skin due to friction. They usually appear in areas of the feet and hands that constantly touch with footwear, socks or other garments. To treat ampoules, it is essential to follow these steps:

  1. Clean the blisted area with soft soap and water.
  2. Sterilize a needle or pin with alcohol or a flame.
  3. Gently click the blister near its edge and let the liquid drain.
  4. Apply an antibiotic ointment and cover the ampoule with a sterile bandkestage or dressing.
  5. Change the bandage daily and monitor if signs of infection appear, such as increase in pain, redness or swelling.

Note: It is essential to avoid bursting a blister unless it causes a lot of pain or prevents normal movement. Leaving an intact ampoule guarantees that the underlying skin is protected against greater irritation and infection.

2. Razaduras: chazaduras are a common skin problem in corridors caused by repetitive friction between body parts or between the body and clothing, especially in areas of the inner face of the thighs, armpits, nipples and waist. To prevent chafing, runners must take into account the following strategies:

  • Wear breathable clothes and absorb moisture to reduce friction.
  • Apply a lubricant, such as vaseline or specialized ant i-zaza balm, in the areas prone to chafing.
  • Opt for seamless or adjusted garments to minimize rubbing and irritation.

Remember: Repeal the lubricant regularly during long races to maintain its effectiveness and avoid chafing.

When proactive in the prevention and treatment of blisters, chafing and other common skin problems, runners can focus on their training without being hindered by discomfort or possible complications. The incorporation of these remedies and prevention strategies to their career routine will contribute to enjoying a healthier experience.

Author of the article
Dr.Greenblatt M.
Dr.Greenblatt M.
Medical oncologist at the Robert Larner College of Medicine, MD, at the University of Vermont

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