Causes and factors of the agency of the spleen in the body. Discover the reasons and possible treatments for this medical condition.

Causes and factors of enlarged spleen in the body. Find out the reasons and possible treatments for this medical condition.

Spleen enlargement, or splenomegaly, is a condition that occurs when the spleen grows more than normal. The spleen is an important organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, responsible for filtering the blood and helping the immune system to fight infections. There are several underlying factors that can contribute to the enlargement of the spleen, from infections to serious diseases.

  1. INFECTIONS: One of the most common causes of spleen enlarged are infections. Viral infections, such as mononucleosis, hepatitis or cytomegalovirus, can cause inflammation and subsequent swelling of the spleen. Bacterial infections, such as endocarditis or tuberculosis, can also cause splenomegaly.
  2. Hepatic diseases: certain liver diseases can indirectly affect the spleen, causing their enlarged. Cirrhosis, a progressive liver condition, can cause an increase in pressure in the Porta vein, which in turn can lead to a spleen enlargement.
  3. Blood disorders: Several blood disorders can contribute to the agraction of the spleen. A conditions such as leukemia, lymphomas and myeloproliferative disorders can alter normal production and functioning of blood cells, causing the spleen to increase in size as it works more to compensate.

Note: It is important to note that the enlargement of the spleen is not always a cause for concern, since a mild enlarging can be a normal response to certain infections or small injuries. However, a persistent or significant enlargement must be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and provide adequate treatment.

In addition to the aforementioned factors, other possible causes of the agractioning of the spleen are certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, as well as metabolic disorders such as Gaucher’s disease. Trauma or spleen injuries can also cause their enlarged. The specific cause of splenomegaly may vary from one person to another, and the exact diagnosis usually requires an exhaustive evaluation by a healthcare professional. The spleen enlargement treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery or lifestyle modifications.

What Causes Spleen Enlargement

There are several factors that can cause the agraction of the spleen:

  1. Infections: Certain infections, such as mononucleosis, bacterial infections such as syphilis or endocarditis, parasitic infections such as malaria and viral infections such as hepatitis, can cause the agraction of the spleen. These infections cause an increase in the production of white blood cells, overloading the spleen and making it increase in size.
  2. Hepatic diseases: some liver diseases, such as cirrhosis, liver cancer or portal hypertension, can cause spleen enlargement. These conditions interrupt the blood flow inside the liver, causing an increase in pressure inside the splenic vein and giving rise to the swap enlargement.
  3. Blood disorders: Disorders that affect blood cells, such as leukemia, lymphoma or certain types of anemia, can contribute to the swinging. In these diseases, excessive production of abnormal blood cells or the destruction of healthy blood cells can cause the aggrandization of the spleen.

It is important to keep in mind that spleen enlargement is a symptom and not a disease in itself. Identifying the underlying cause is crucial for adequate diagnosis and treatment. People who experience symptoms such as persistent pain or feeling of fullness in the upper left of the abdomen, fatigue, frequent infections or inexplicable weight loss should seek medical attention to determine the cause of the agraction of the spleen.

The Role of the Spleen

One of the main functions of the spleen is your participation in the immune system. Acting as a blood filter, the spleen identifies and eliminates any old or damaged red blood cells, as well as any pathogen, toxin or strange particle that may be present. This process helps to clean the blood, making it an important defense mechanism against various infections and diseases.

Spleen functions:

  1. Filtration and cleaning of the blood
  2. Antibody production
  3. Blood cell storage
  4. Destruction of old or damaged red blood cells
  5. Iron Recycling

The spleen also intervenes in the production of antibodies, essential components of the immune system. Specialized spleen cells, called lymphocytes, contribute to the production of these antibodies, improving the body’s ability to combat infections and respond to strange substances. In addition, the spleen acts as a white blood cell warehouse and platelets, which can be released to the bloodstream when necessary to help blood clotting and wound healing.

Table: Spleen Disorders

Spleen disorder Description
Splenomegaly Enlargement of the spleen, usually caused by infections, liver diseases, or blood disorders.
Splenic infarction Tissue death in the spleen due to compromised blood flow.
Splenic rupture Tear or rupture of the spleen, often as a result of trauma or underlying medical conditions.

Infections and Inflammation: Common Causes of Spleen Enlargement


  • Bacterial infections: Certain bacterial infections, such as pneumonia, endocarditis, and tuberculosis, can cause an enlarged spleen. These infections often spread to the spleen through the bloodstream, causing inflammation and enlargement of the organ.
  • Viral infections: Viral infections such as mononucleosis, hepatitis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) can also cause an enlarged spleen. These viruses can directly invade the spleen, causing inflammation and swelling.
  • Parasitic infections: Parasitic infections such as malaria, babesiosis and toxoplasmosis can affect the spleen and cause it to enlarge. Parasites can directly invade the spleen or trigger an immune response that causes inflammation.

It is important to note that an enlarged spleen is a common response to various infections and does not necessarily indicate a serious underlying disease. However, persistent or significant enlargement may require additional evaluation and treatment by a healthcare professional.


  • Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and sarcoidosis can cause chronic inflammation in the body, including the spleen. This chronic inflammation can end up causing an enlarged spleen.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Chronic conditions such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, which are forms of IBD, can cause inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. This inflammation can spread to the spleen and cause it to enlarge.
  • Connective tissue disorders: Certain connective tissue disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren’s syndrome, can cause chronic inflammation throughout the body, including the spleen.

Table: Common causes of enlarged spleen
Infections Inflammation
Bacterial infections Autoimmune disorders
viral infections Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Parasitic infections Connective tissue disorders

If you notice a persistent or unexplained enlargement of the spleen, it is important to see a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment. They will evaluate your symptoms, perform necessary tests, and develop a personalized treatment plan to address the underlying cause of your enlarged spleen.

Blood Disorders

Blood disorders encompass a wide range of conditions that affect blood components, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. These disorders can be due to various causes, such as genetic mutations, autoimmune reactions, infections, nutritional deficiencies, or certain medications. They can lead to a variety of symptoms, ranging from mild fatigue and pale skin to severe bleeding or increased susceptibility to infections.

1. 1. Anemia: Anemia is a common blood disorder characterized by a decreased number of red blood cells or a reduced amount of hemoglobin in the blood. It can be caused by factors such as iron, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiencies, chronic diseases, genetic disorders or blood loss. Common symptoms of anemia are fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, paleness, and dizziness.

Types of Anemia:

  • Iron deficiency anemia: It is the most common type of anemia and occurs due to a lack of iron in the body, which causes a decrease in the production of red blood cells.
  • Sickle cell anemia: This inherited disorder causes red blood cells to become abnormally shaped and can lead to organ damage and other complications.
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: In this condition, the immune system destroys its own red blood cells, causing anemia.

2. 2. Thrombocytopenia: Thrombocytopenia is a disorder characterized by a low count of platelets in the blood. Platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting, and a low number can lead to excessive bleeding or clotting difficulties. This condition can be caused by a variety of factors, such as bone marrow disorders, autoimmune diseases, viral infections, certain medications, or certain types of cancer.

  1. Immune thrombocytopenia: This disease is caused by the immune system erroneous destruction of platelets, resulting in a low platelet count.
  2. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: This rare disorder is characterized by the formation of blood clots throughout the body, which can deplete platelets and cause bleeding.
  3. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Some people may develop a low platelet count as a reaction to the medication heparin, commonly used as a blood thinner.

Common blood disorders
Disorder Cause Symptoms
Anemia Deficiencies, diseases, genetic disorders Fatigue, weakness, pale skin, dizziness
Thrombocytopenia Autoimmune diseases, medications, bone marrow disorders Excessive bleeding, easy bruising, petechiae

Liver Disease

Causes of liver disease

  • Alcohol abuse: Excessive and prolonged alcohol consumption can cause alcoholic liver disease.
  • Hepatitis: Infection with hepatitis viruses, such as hepatitis A, B, or C, can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
  • Fatty liver disease: The accumulation of excess fat in the liver due to factors such as obesity, high cholesterol or diabetes can lead to fatty liver disease.

Types of liver disease:

  1. Cirrhosis: Progressive, irreversible scarring of the liver, often caused by alcohol abuse or chronic hepatitis.
  2. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, which can be acute or chronic and caused by various factors, including viral infections.
  3. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A disease in which fat accumulates in the liver, not related to alcohol consumption.

Signs and symptoms of liver diseases:

The most common signs and symptoms of liver disease are

  • Jaundice: yellowing of the skin and eyes.
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Abdominal pain and swelling
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • dark urine
Stages of liver disease Characteristics
Stadium 1 Mild inflammation and liver damage
Stage 2 Increased inflammation and fibrosis
Stage 3 Advanced fibrosis and scarring
Stage 4 Cirrhosis and liver failure

Autoimmune Disorders

There are many factors that can contribute to the development of autoimmune disorders, such as genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and immune system dysregulation. Genetics plays an important role in autoimmune disorders, as certain genes can make individuals more susceptible to these conditions. However, genetic predisposition alone is not enough to cause an autoimmune disorder, and additional triggers are usually required.

  • Environmental triggers, such as infections, exposure to certain chemicals, and stress, can influence the onset and progression of autoimmune disorders.
  • The immune system plays a crucial role in defending the body against foreign invaders, but in autoimmune disorders it becomes deregulated and begins to attack healthy cells and tissues.

“Autoimmune disorders are characterized by an inappropriate immune response against self-antigens, leading to tissue damage and dysfunction.”

Autoimmune disorders can affect various organs and systems in the body, such as the skin, joints, muscles, blood vessels, and endocrine system. Some common autoimmune disorders include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis: This autoimmune disorder primarily affects the joints, causing inflammation, pain, and stiffness.
  2. Lupus: Lupus is a systemic autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple organs, including the skin, joints, kidneys, and heart.
  3. Multiple sclerosis: In multiple sclerosis, the immune system mistakenly attacks the protective covering of the nerves, causing neurological symptoms.
  4. Inflammatory bowel disease: This group of autoimmune disorders includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, which involve chronic inflammation of the digestive tract.
autoimmune disorder Common symptoms
Rheumatoid arthritis Joint pain, stiffness, swelling
Lupus Joint pain, fatigue, rash, fever
Multiple sclerosis Numbness, weakness, coordination problems
inflammatory bowel disease Abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss

Trauma and Injury: Causes of Spleen Enlargement

1. Blunt force trauma: One of the most common causes of an enlarged spleen is blunt force trauma to the abdomen or chest. This can occur as a result of a car accident, a fall, or a direct hit to the area. The impact of trauma can cause the spleen to swell and potentially rupture, causing internal bleeding. According to medical professionals, the spleen is especially vulnerable to injury due to its thin and fragile structure, which makes it susceptible to even minor trauma.

“Blunt force trauma to the abdomen or chest can cause the spleen to enlarge and potentially lead to rupture and internal bleeding.”

2. Sports injuries: Athletes, especially those who play contact sports or activities with a high risk of impact, are prone to suffering from an enlarged spleen due to trauma. Collisions, falls or direct blows to the abdomen can cause injuries to the spleen. It is crucial that people participating in these activities are aware of the risks and take the necessary precautions, including the use of appropriate protective equipment, to minimize the likelihood of an enlarged spleen.

  1. Injuries from contact sports can cause an enlarged spleen.
  2. Athletes should prioritize the use of protective equipment to reduce the risk of such injuries.

Understanding the causes of the enlargement of the spleen, particularly trauma and injuries, is important for medical professionals and for people at risk. Early recognition and proper treatment of spleen injuries can help prevent subsequent complications and guarantee adequate healing.

Medications and Treatments

When dealing with the agraction of the spleen, health professionals can recommend various medications and treatments based on the underlying cause of the condition. The objective of these interventions is to relieve symptoms, control the underlying disease or, in severe cases, perform a surgical intervention to remove the spleen.

Medications: Depending on the cause of the agency of the spleen, doctors can prescribe different medications to treat the underlying condition. For example, if enlargement is due to an infection such as mononucleosis, antiviral medications can be prescribed to combat viral infection. If the underlying cause are autoimmune diseases such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, immunosuppressive drugs can be prescribed to suppress the activity of the immune system and reduce inflammation.

  • For viral infections, antiviral medications can be prescribed.
  • Immunosuppressive drugs can help control autoimmune disorders.
  • Antibiotics may be necessary if the enlargement is caused by a bacterial infection.
  • Ant i-inflammatories are usually used to reduce swelling and pain.

Treatments: In addition to medications, there are several treatment options for spleen enlargement. A common approach is the vigilant waiting, in which the patient’s status is closely monitored and medical intervention is delayed unless it is necessary. This approach can be adequate for mild cases of agractioning of the spleen or when the underlying cause is uncertain.

  1. Surgical intervention: If the enlargement is serious and causes important symptoms or complications, a splenectomy can be recommended. This surgical procedure consists of removing the entire spleen. The splenectomy is usually considered the last resort due to the important role that the spleen plays in the immune system.
  2. Radiotherapy: In some cases, radiotherapy can be used to reduce the size of a enlarged spleen. This treatment uses high energy rays to attack and reduce the affected tissue.
  3. Chemotherapy: If spleen enlargement is associated with a cancerous disease, such as leukemia or lymphoma, chemotherapy can be part of the treatment plan. Chemotherapeutic drugs attack and destroy the organism’s cancer cells, including those that affect the spleen.

In summary, the treatment of the swimming enlargement implies a combination of medicines and treatments adapted to the underlying cause. The timely intervention, the precise diagnosis and individualized treatment plans are essential to effectively address enlargement and guarantee the patient’s wel l-being.

Other Potential Causes

1. Hematological disorders: Certain hematological disorders can cause a spleen enlarging. Among them include conditions such as leukemia, lymphoma and myelofibrosis. In these cases, the abnormal production or function of blood cells can cause the spleen to increase in size, as it works to filter and remove affected cells.

  • Leukemia: type of cancer that affects bone marrow and causes excessive production of abnormal white blood cells. The presence of these cancer cells in the bloodstream can cause the spleen to increase in size.
  • Lymphoma: Cancer that originates in the lymphatic system, which includes lymph nodes, lymph vessels and organs such as the spleen. A Spleen enlargement may occur as lymphoma cells accumulate and multiply in this organ.
  • Myelofibrosis: Uncommon disorder characterized by the replacement of bone marrow with fibrous tissue. As the bone marrow becomes less efficient in the production of blood cells, the spleen can be enlarged when trying to compensate for the decrease in production.

2. Hepatic diseases: Several liver conditions can cause the swimming agency due to the increase in pressure in the Porta vein, which transports blood from the intestines to the liver. This pressure increase, known as portal hypertension, makes blood flow to the spleen, causing its enlargement.

  1. Cirrhosis: Late phase of liver healing caused by different forms of liver diseases, such as hepatitis or alcohol abuse. As the healing tissue replaces healthy liver cells and interrupts blood flow, the spleen can be enlarged due to the increase in pressure in the portal vein.
  2. Porta vein thrombosis: A blood clot that obstructs the portal vein can cause portal hypertension and the consequent swove agraction.

It is important for healthcare professionals to consider these other possible causes when evaluating patients with an enlarged spleen. To determine the underlying cause and provide appropriate treatment to the patient, a complete medical history, physical examination, and appropriate diagnostic tests, such as blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsies, may be necessary.

Note: The information provided here is for educational purposes only and should not be taken as medical advice. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of an enlarged spleen, it is recommended that you consult a qualified healthcare professional for proper evaluation and guidance.

Author of the article
Dr.Greenblatt M.
Dr.Greenblatt M.
Medical oncologist at the Robert Larner College of Medicine, MD, at the University of Vermont

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